In his 1980 film Kagemusha or Shadow Warrior, Akira Kurosawa presents the sixteenth-century Takeda clan engaging a lower-class thief to impersonate their recently deceased leader, Takeda Shingen. I examine Kagemusha as a critical engagement with Shakespeare's English history plays and 'shadow' counterpart to Kurosawa's trilogy of Shakespeare adaptations, Throne of Blood (1957), The Bad Sleep Well (1960) and Ran (1985). In keeping with Shakespeare's dramatisation of English history, Kurosawa creatively reworks historical sources, incorporating stories of intergenerational rivalry and fulfilled prophecies, to depict the transition from medieval civil conflict to the early-modern nation-state. Kurosawa also deploys the motif of the double to explore the distinctively Shakespearean theme of power as performance, engaging in a dramatic examination of Machiavelli's ideas about politics. I argue that Kurosawa's use of the double posits a theory of influence, drawing on Japanese cultural traditions, in which doubling can achieve a form of transcendence through self-annihilation.
Venuti(1995) cites Norman Shapiro's metaphor of \"a paneof glass\" to describe the translation with little imper-fections likescratches and bubbles. He disagrees with the translation without anylinguistic or stylistic peculiarities and calls the \"invisibility of thetranslator\" a weird self-annihilation. The illusion of transparencycovers up \"the crucial intervention\" of the original text. Venutiproposes the resistant strategy to preserve the difference and the othernessand challenge the aesthetic culture of the target language (p.306). In 1998,he goes further and claims the translation catering to the target languageblindly as a scandal and explains his preference of minoritizing translationin which he suggests the translator manifest the foreigness of the foreigntext to avoid the inequality in translation (Venuti,1998).
Tao Te Ching attracts numerous scholars to introduce the profoundinsights with its unique cultural and linguistic features. The translationversions are varied in content as some translators distort the meaning forthe sake of form or rhymes, or amplify the subtitles in the chapters on thebasis of their understanding, or change the original images to cater for thevalue and culture of the target language, which lead to the misunderstandingof the book in the western world. 781b155fdc